Electricity is used by human beings in a wide variety of purposes and also to lead a normal life you will need constant supply of electricity and this electricity can be produced in various ways and one of the best ways for producing this electricity is with the help of hydroelectric power.
Hydroelectric as the name suggest consist of generating electricity from the power of water.
When the water is flowing it actually consist of kinetic electricity and in the simplest terms hydro electricity can be termed as generating or converting the kind of tech energy of water into electricity with the help of turbines.
Over the last few years they are has been growing impetus to use hydro power to generate more and more electricity because it is a much more cleaner source of power and also the water which is used for generating hydroelectricity can be reused in farms and for agriculture. This makes it a very clean source of energy which does not affect our environment.
How is hydroelectricity generated?
As we have explained about the basic concept of generating hydroelectricity is to convert the kinetic energy of water into electricity but the setup for doing this is not very simple and therefore we would be discussing about the setup as well as the entire process of generating hydroelectricity.
The generation of hydroelectricity is widely dependent on the water cycle because when the water is evaporated from the oceans with the help of water cycle it gets converted into water vapour and this water vapour when called by the clouds gets converted into drains and these rains occur on the landmass as well.
Due to the rains which are occurring water is collected in the form of springs and tributaries and many of such springs and tributaries actually form a large river.
If you are not as the river it normally originates in the hilly areas and then flows down the planes to finally reach the ocean and during this the flow of the river is immense and this is due to the gravitational force of the earth and therefore ensured you can say that the concept of hydroelectric power generation uses both the water cycle that is the heat of the sun and also the gravitational force of the art to generate electricity from flowing water.
In most of the cases it has been found that the hydroelectric power plants are actually constructed in the form of dams at higher altitudes because the flow of the river at higher altitudes is much more than the flow of the river at lower altitudes and since this flow of the river and the intensity of the flow of the river is used to generate hydroelectricity it makes perfect sense to use the kinetic energy of the river when it is at a much higher quantum in the higher altitudes rather than using the kinetic energy of the river when it is lower because of less gravitational pull in the planes.
You would have studied in your schools that most of the dams are actually in the hilly areas and that is because the flow of the river is the highest in the hilly areas and similarly the kinetic energy which is directly dependent on the rate of flow of the river is also higher in these areas.
When a dam is built to generate hydroelectricity from a flowing river the water in the river is made to flow over the turbines in the hydroelectric power plant. These turbines are then moved by the water to generate electricity.
If you ever noticed a dam which is generating hydroelectric power than you would have noticed that the dam is actually built at a greater height work when the water comes out from the dam that is at a much lower right and this is because the more the difference at the inlet and outlet the greater would be the flow of water and therefore the more would be the electricity which can be generated.
When the difference in the inlet and outlet is more than the average height the flow of water is also increased and with the increase in the flow of water the kinetic energy which can be present in the water is also increased and since this kinetic energy is converted into electricity with the help of turbines therefore the amount of kinetic energy is directly proportional to the amount of electricity which can be generated.
In this entire process there is no change in the quality of the water or there is no alteration in the water which is used in there for this water can be easily used for various other purposes as well and thence ensures that the amount of water which is used to generate hydroelectricity is not going to waste and can be reused again and again.
Tidal power: this is actually a variation of the hydroelectric power which is generated with the help of reverse because tidal power is actually generated with the help of waves and it is in in the initial stages of testing. The basic working principle of tidal working power is almost the same as that of hydroelectric power generation and that is to move the turbines with the flow of the water and in this case the flow of the water is not in the form of a diverse but rather it is in the form of tides which are generated in the ocean. This does not require any construction of a dam to obstruct the ocean or something because this can be done with the help of oceans and in between the oceans as well and therefore it looks much more promising than constructing billion-dollar dams across a wide majority of rivers.
The main advantage of hydroelectric power generation is that the dams or any other facility which is built to generate the hydroelectric power can last for a very long period of time and one of the most famous examples of this is the Hoover Dam which was built in the 1930s and is still going strong and generating hydroelectric power up to its normal capacity.
Due to some of the points which we have discussed above hydroelectricity generation holds a lot of promise because of its clean working and because of its principal of wasting natural kinetic energy of water and converting it into electricity.