How does a speaker work?

If you like most people like to hear to music then you would have noticed that most of the music which we hear to is played with the help of the speakers. Whether it is on the television or whether it is that some other kind of function is played through the help of the speakers. Loudspeakers have become a part of our life whether it is the public address system or whether it is the television or whether it is the home theatre system. They are present everywhere ranging from the mobile to the tablets to the televisions but how does a speaker work?

Working of a loudspeaker:


In most of the cases sound is invisible but in some rare cases you actually see the phenomenon on which enables the generation of sound and one such phenomena on is when you strike the kettle-drum with the help of a stick then you can see the vibrations in the surface of the drum and you to these vibrations sound waves are generated. This is one of the most common examples of generation of sound from vibrations. If you look at the conversion of electric signals into sound in the loudspeaker, it works in the same way as the above example.

The part of the loudspeaker which resembles the surface of the drum is known as diaphragm and it is made from a very lightweight material so that it can vibrate according to the electric signals which are received. This can be made from materials like plastic or lightweight metals or fabric. It is in a conical shape. If you have noticed to the loudspeaker, then you would realise that the outer part of the cone is fastened and to the outer part of the loudspeaker which is a metal rim or can be a wooden rim as well where is the inner part of the cone is attached to the coil which is made of iron and and is known as the voice coil. This coil is directly in front of the magnet which is placed inside the loudspeaker and is also known as the field magnet. Whenever the electric signals are passed to the loudspeaker, they pass through the voice coil and due to the electromagnetic effect the voice coil turns into a temporary magnet and depending on the electric field it can be either attracted to the permanent magnet or it can be repelled by the permanent magnet and this attraction and repulsion knows the cone which is attached to the coil in a similar fashion. Due to this moment there is vibration in the surface of the cone which results in sound waves.
How does the volume and frequency change in loudspeakers?

woofer and tweeter

The volume of the loudspeaker would depend on the moment of the cone which in turn depends on the magnitude of the electric signals which are passed through the voice coil. When the attraction or repulsion is less then the volume is less and similarly when the attraction or repulsion is more the volume is more as well. This is the same working principle as that of the drum which we explained above. The signals which can produce low volume of sound are low in magnitude as well.

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We are the principle of conversion of energy comes into the picture, it states that if you want to create a large amount of sound energy then it would only be created by converting it from some other form of energy and therefore whenever loud sound is needed you need electric signal of more magnitude as well.

Now, you would be wondering how the frequency of the sound which is being produced by the loudspeaker changes. This principle is also available in the drum because if you have noticed the professional drum is closely you would find that there is a better to make the skin of the drum light tight. When the skin of promised I’d the sound which is produced by hitting the surface of the drum is a high-pitched sound and in a similar fashion when the skin of the drum is lose the sound which is produced by hitting the surface is a low pitched sound. Same is the working of the loudspeakers. The bigger speakers which are larger cones have the surface which Moses slowly as compared to the smaller speakers which are smaller cones. Therefore, the bigger speakers produce the low pitch sound whereas the smaller speakers produce the high-pitched sound. The bigger speakers are known as the woofers where as the smaller speakers are known as tweeters.

Improving the quality of your speakers:


Speaker in a wooden/Plastix box for sympathetic resonance


As we mentioned above most of the speakers are placed in wooden boxes or in plastic boxes and this is not a coincidence but rather it is done knowingly to improve the quality of the sound of the speakers. This is because of the process known as sympathetic resonance. This process is in work in the guitars as well and also in the loudspeakers. Whenever a sound is generated as we have explained about is due to the vibrations in the air and these vibrations are also inside the instruments like the loudspeaker or a guitar and when these vibrations start in the inside of the instruments as well you can be sure that the vibrations would be having a larger life due to which you are able to hear the sound at a great distance as well and that is why the loudspeaker is placed in a wooden or plastic box to ensure that there is sympathetic resonance inside the loudspeaker.

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In order to make the sound quality better of your speakers you had to place them symmetrically that is if you are placing a speaker around 10 inches from the wall then you had to place another speaker around 10 inches away from the wall as well. Also you had to avoid placing the speaker directly on the ground but rather you had to mount it on something and if possible you had to keep it at the level of the ear. For this you can use a speaker stand as well. As far as possible you had to keep the speakers in the centre of the room because this would ensure that the reflection from the walls does not interfere with the sound waves which are being generated by the speakers.

This is how a speaker normally works and how it produces sound.